REDD-Monitor’s round-up of the week’s news on forests, climate change, and REDD. For regular updates, follow @reddmonitor on Twitter.
8 April 2019
CO2 levels pass 3-million-year record
By Tim Radford, Climate News Network, 8 April 2019
German scientists have confirmed, once again, that carbon dioxide is reaching concentrations unprecedented on any human time scale, with CO2 levels in the atmosphere already higher than they have been for at least three million years.
And their computer simulations – backed up by analysis of ocean sediments that tell a tale of changing temperatures and greenhouse gas levels – show that before the century’s close the world will become warmer than at any time in the last three million years.
The last time planetary temperatures reached a level higher than the target set by 195 nations in Paris in 2015 was during a bygone geological period, the Pliocene.
Shell pushes green credentials with “carbon neutral” driving scheme
Reuters, 8 April 2019
Dutch drivers seeking to offset their impact on the environment will soon be able to do so at Shell petrol stations with credits to support initiatives such as tree-planting projects.
The scheme is due to launch in the Netherlands this month before being expanded to other countries, the oil major said on Monday as it outlined plans to invest $300 million in the programme over the next three years as part of its clean energy budget of up to $2 billion a year.
Weatherwatch: the new forests helping to clean our atmosphere
By Paul Brown, The Guardian, 8 April 2019
When measures designed to curb climate change have a beneficial effect and result in a greener planet, it is cheering. The amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has been on a relentless upward trend but things would be far worse if countries in the northern hemisphere were not planting forests and restoring natural habitats. Measurements taken over 60 years of the uptake of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere during the growing season show that, north of the equator, plants are absorbing more carbon than they used to.
6 Pressing Questions About Beef and Climate Change, Answered
By Richard Waite, Tim Searchinger, and Janet Ranganathan, World Resources Institute, 8 April 2019
Beef and climate change are in the news these days, from cows’ alleged high-methane farts (fact check: they’re actually mostly high-methane burps) to comparisons with cars and airplanes (fact check: the world needs to reduce emissions from fossil fuels and agriculture to sufficiently rein in global warming). And as with so many things in the public sphere lately, it’s easy for the conversation to get polarized. Animal-based foods are nutritious and especially important to livelihoods and diets in developing countries, but they are also inefficient resource users. Beef production is becoming more efficient, but forests are still being cut down for new pasture. People say they want to eat more plants, but meat consumption is still rising.
[Indonesia] Stakeholder Dialogue For Low Emission Development Strategies In Aceh.
Governors’ Climate and Forests Task Force, 8 April 2019
On April 4th, over 50 participants gathered in Banda Aceh to launch the provincial government’s new efforts to develop an Integrated Low Emissions Development Strategy to tackle deforestation and promote sustainable development. The strategy is an effort by the province to capitalize on the momentum that has built in recent years to reduce deforestation and is supported by partners including the Governors’ Climate and Forests Task Force, the Government of Norway, the United Nations Development Programme, and Flora and Fauna International (FFI).
9 April 2019
WWF Has Hired A Former Top UN Human Rights Official To Oversee Investigation Into Abuses Exposed By BuzzFeed News
By Tom Warren and Katie J.M. Baker, BuzzFeed News, 9 April 2019
The World Wide Fund for Nature has appointed the former United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, Navi Pillay, to oversee its review of revelations that the charity is implicated in human rights abuses against indigenous people.
BuzzFeed News reported in March that WWF funds, equips, and works directly with anti-poaching forces who have been accused of beating, torturing, sexually assaulting, and murdering scores of people. The charity has until now refused to comment on the evidence, beyond announcing that it will cooperate fully with an independent review led by the law firm Kingsley Napley.
New World Bank chief confirms commitment to environment
By Larry Elliott, The Guardian, 9 April 2019
Donald Trump’s choice to run the World Bank has moved swiftly to allay fears that his appointment will lead to a softening of the organisation’s approach to climate change.
In his first day at the helm of the Washington-based institution, David Malpass said helping developing countries cope with global warming would remain central to the bank’s mission.
Malpass also said there would be no change in the bank’s refusal to lend for new coal-fired power plants, despite Trump’s strong support for US coal producers.
CIFOR DG calls for ‘people-centric’ approach in landscape restoration
By Augusta Dwyer, CIFOR Forests News, 9 April 2019
Tenure security for the indigenous and traditional communities that are often the stewards of forests and natural landscapes is vital for restoration. That message was clear at the recent World Bank conference on Poverty and Land session on climate change, forest landscape restoration and tenure: catalyzing restoration from below and above.
“I think we are in FLR a bit like we were in REDD a few years ago,” said CIFOR General Director Robert Nasi, who chaired the session. “You will remember that REDD was first RED, Reduced Emissions from Deforestation. Then it became REDD, Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation. Then it became REDD plus. I think we are at the stage in FLR where we probably need FLR plus.”
Southwest China battles forest fires
Xinhua, 9 April 2019
Hundreds of firefighters are battling forest fires that have been sweeping mountain forests in three different counties in southwest China’s Sichuan Province.
A forest fire that killed 27 firefighters and three locals a week ago in Muli County, Liangshan Yi Autonomous Prefecture, started to burn again Saturday afternoon.
In addition, the counties of Yuexi and Mianning, also in Liangshan, have been battered by forest fires since Sunday, according to the local government of the prefecture.
EUAs could reach EUR 45/t by yearend – Berenberg
By Jeff Coelho, Montel, 9 April 2019
European carbon prices could end this year at EUR 45/t, and average EUR 65/t next year, due to a tightening supply of allowances, analysts at Berenberg said in a research note on Tuesday.
The analysts estimated the ETS market would have a shortage of 574m allowances in 2023, thanks in part to new regulations “designed to eliminate market distortions from the sale of 450m permits” allocated to a fund for energy efficiency projects, it said.
“Our peak shortage is now 574m in 2023, 22% worse than our previous forecast of 471m,” the Berenberg analysts said. [R-M: Subscription needed.]
Lofty goals of German ‘climate cabinet’ met with skepticism
By Austin Davis and Jens Thurau, DW, 9 April 2019
German Foreign Minister Heiko Maas met with fellow Cabinet members and dozens of international delegations at the Berlin Energy Transition Dialogue on Tuesday to discuss global climate change.
The event comes at a pivotal moment for Germany’s environmental policy. The nation is staring down demands from the burgeoning Fridays for Future student movement and the likely possibility of missing its short-term and interim climate targets at great financial cost.
“Friday after Friday, young people in countless places around the world are making us look old,” Maas said on Tuesday. “They demand that we do more to protect the environment. They demand that we not only recognize reality but also change it — that we change. It’s about our existence.”
India Sees 49% Rise in Forest Fire Cases in Three Years: FSI
The Weather Channel, 9 April 2019
Data compiled by the Forest Survey of India (FSI) shows that forest fire incidents in the country have risen 49.32% in the past three years. These incidents rose to 37,059 in 2018 from 35,888 in 2017 and 24,817 in 2016.
The data revealed that Mizoram led the list of affected states, recording 2,500 fire alert incidents, followed by Maharashtra (1,449), Assam (1,357), Meghalaya (1,340) and Manipur (1,312). Only 52 fire alerts were recorded in Uttarakhand.
[Indonesia, Malaysia] Jokowi, Mahathir Tell Brussels to Get Ready for Retaliation Over Discriminatory Palm Oil Restriction
By Dion Bisara, Jakarta Globe, 9 April 2019
Indonesian President Joko “Jokowi” Widodo and Malaysian Prime Minister Mahathir Muhammad have sent a scathing joint letter to the European Union, conveying grave concerns from the two countries over an EU plan that would effectively ban palm oil fuel in its member states over the next decade. The letter comes with a threat of trade retaliation against the plan.
Sending the letter was the latest move by two of the world’s largest palm oil producers to try to keep Europe, one of the largest palm oil markets, from making a ruling against the commodity.
The European Commission adopted on March 13 what has become known as the delegated act, which classifies palm oil as unsustainable.
10 April 2019
Shell will spend $300 million to offset carbon emissions. Here’s the catch
By Akshat Rathi, Quartz, 10 April 2019
Shell wants to make fossil fuels more palatable for the environmentally-conscious consumer.
Starting Apr. 17, across the Netherlands (and later in other countries), the oil giant will give customers at the gas pump the option to add €0.01 per liter of fuel, which the company will then use to “offset” the carbon emissions of that gasoline. The money will go towards buying carbon credits from “nature-based” projects, according to a Shell press release.
These tree-planting drones are firing seed missiles to restore the world’s forests
By Adele Peters, Fast Company, 10 April 2019
In a remote field south of Yangon, Myanmar, tiny mangrove saplings are now roughly 20 inches tall. Last September, the trees were planted by drones. It’s early proof of technology that could help restore forests at the pace needed to fight climate change.
“We now have a case confirmed of what species we can plant and in what conditions,” says Irina Federenko, cofounder of Biocarbon Engineering, the startup that makes the drones. The right combination of species and specific environmental conditions made the restoration work. “We are now ready to scale up our planting and replicate this success.”
Wetlands are fast disappearing – study
By Alfred Ochwo, The Observer, 10 April 2019
Wetland ecosystems diminished from 13 per cent in 1995 to nine per cent in 2010, an average annual decline of about 3 per cent, a new study by government has found.
Wetlands and cities have a long symbiotic relationship as cities grow, wetlands disappear. While closing the Uganda water week held at the Water Resource Institute in Entebbe, Mary Gorreti Kitutu, minister of state for Environment, re-echoed a presidential directive issued at Kyankwanzi that all central forest reserves, wetlands, river banks and lake shores should be protected.
Deutsche Bank Lawyers Cleared Seven Years After Arrest in Tax Raid
By Karin Matussek, Bloomberg, 10 April 2019
For a pair of former Deutsche Bank AG lawyers who nearly spent Christmas in jail in 2012, a ruling from a German court last month was at least partial — if belated — redemption.
A Frankfurt appeals court last month ruled that there wasn’t enough evidence for an arrest warrant to support prosecutors suspicions that the two in-house lawyers — Michael Schroeder and Peter Lindt — were conspiring to obstruct a probe into a carbon-emission tax scheme.
“I’m finally rehabilitated, but only after a long march through all court levels,” said Schroeder, 61, who fought the case on his own for years even after prosecutors had dropped the probe in 2017.
[Indonesia] Suspended Palm Oil Company Korindo Turns to Biofuel Market
Chain Reaction Research, 10 April 2019
Korindo Group, the private Indonesian palm oil, rubber and timber company, was suspended by multiple NDPE traders between 2016 and 2018 after evidence of deforestation and illegal burning on their concessions. Faced with restricted NDPE market access, the company is now looking at business opportunities in the regional biofuel market. Korindo is owned by the South Korean Seung family.
Korindo began clearing tropical forest for oil palm in West Papua and North Maluku in 2013. Analysis by Aidenvironment and Mighty Earth showed Korindo as the area’s largest oil palm plantation developer. Between 2013 and 2016, Korindo cleared 30,000 hectares (ha) of forest, 12,000 ha of it primary forest. Extensive forest fires and land tenure disagreements on PT Gelora Mandiri Membangun in North Maluku constituted additional NDPE policy non-compliance by the company.
[USA] Why California businesses plan to invest $2 million in Vermont wilderness
By Joel Banner Baird, Burlington Free Press, 10 April 2019
A big parcel of forestland in Vermont that is permanently off-bounds to human enterprise stands to earn an estimated $200,000-per-year as it scrubs greenhouse gases from Earth’s atmosphere, conservation advocates say.
They can thank polluters on the West Coast who are willing to “rent” healthy landscapes around the country as a way to compensate for burning fossil fuels.
When the trails dry out this spring at the newly conserved Burnt Mountain Wilderness Area, specialists will fan out across its 5,487 acres to thoroughly inventory old-growth forests and assess their value to California carbon regulatory markets, said Jim Shallow, who oversees strategic conservation projects for nonprofit The Nature Conservancy.
11 April 2019
Noble Savages and Other Myths: What Indigenous People Can Teach Us about Biodiversity
By Stephen Corry, The Elephant, 11 April 2019
“If we were to leave this jungle, then it would be difficult for it to survive. There is forest and water because we are here. If we were to leave, then come back in a while and look, there will be nothing left.” ~ Baiga tribesman, India
The noted environmentalist, Robert Goodland, was an early torchbearer of the warning that if you cut down a lot of Amazonia, it is destroyed forever. He explained that the rainforest lies on extremely poor soil and grows largely off its own detritus. When very large areas are felled, the trees aren’t able to grow back as they can’t produce the wet and rotting vegetation needed for the forest to regenerate.
George Monbiot Q + A – How rejuvenating nature could help fight climate change
By Stephen Woroniecki, The Conversation, 11 April 2019
Natural climate solutions let nature do the hard work in the fight against climate change by restoring habitats such as forests and wetlands. This could absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and help biodiversity thrive. Stephen Woroniecki – a PhD Researcher in Climate Change Adaptation from Lund University in Sweden – discusses how this approach could address the ecological crisis with Guardian columnist and environmental campaigner George Monbiot.
New online platform tackles agency duplication in the Congo Basin
By Atziri Gonzalez, CIFOR Forests News, 11 April 2019
Conservation of the Congo Basin forests is a critical, but complex undertaking. This massive tropical forest block, the world’s second largest, covers over 200 million hectares and spreads across six countries in Central Africa. It is home to some of the world’s most critically endangered animals, such as lowland gorillas, as well as over 10,000 endemic tropical plant species. It also provides livelihoods to 60 million people, who depend on forest resources for food, energy, and jobs – a significant economic contribution in one of the world’s least developed regions. And as if this was not enough, it stores around 46 billion metric tons of carbon, benefitting the whole planet facing climate change.
‘It’s getting worse’: National parks in Honduras hit hard by palm oil
By Max Radwin, Mongabay, 11 April 2019
On Feb. 6, 1995, an unidentified white pickup truck rolled up to the home of environmental activist Jeanette Kawas. It was a quiet Monday evening in the small Honduran town of Tela, which sits on the country’s northern Caribbean coast. Two men stepped out of the truck and managed to get past the front gate. They went around the side of the house to a window, where they could see Kawas sitting at the kitchen table with her assistant, Trinidad Marcial Bueno Romero, the last person who would ever see her alive. One of the men shot Kawas in the neck, killing her instantly, and they fled into the night.
Kawas was the founder and president of the Foundation for the Protection of Lancetilla, Punta Sal, Punta Izopo and Texiguat national parks (PROLANSATE), an organization dedicated to natural resource preservation in the Tela Bay area, which largely involved preventing oil palm plantation development from destroying tropical forests and mangroves.
[India] Stuck in reverse gear
By Sharadchandra Lele, Millennium Post, 11 April 2019
One step forward, two steps back. That seems to be the story of reforms in India’s forest sector. The forest departments (FDs), like irrigation and revenue departments, were originally created to serve the interests of colonial power. After Independence, the designers of a democratic India overlooked the crying need to redefine the goals and restructure the governance of this sector. States simply cut-pasted the Indian Forest Act (IFA) into state acts. Thus re-sanctified, the FDs have successfully resisted or co-opted all subsequent attempts at reform.
[Indonesia] A Saga of Palm Oil, International Conflict, and Forest Destruction
ALERT, 11 April 2019
In September last year, Indonesian President Jokowi imposed a moratorium on new oil-palm plantations — a key driver of forest destruction in that mega-biodiversity nation.
Though only partially effective, Jokowi’s initiative was applauded by conservationists and scientists worldwide.
But now, barely six months later, Jokowi is threatening to renege on his much-praised moratorium. Why?
[Kenya] Sengwer ask taskforce to explain role of EU staff in its meetings
By STephen Rutto, Standard, 11 April 2019
The indigenous Sengwer community living in Embobut Forest has questioned the presence of international agencies in a task force established to look into indigenous peoples’ land rights.
Yesterday, the community questioned the presence of a team, it claimed, comprises a European body in the task force on implementation of the decision of the African Court on Human and People’s Rights.
[Nepal] ICFRE hailed for addressing global issues in forestry
The Pioneer, 11 April 2019
The International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD) at Nepal and Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education (ICFRE), Dehradun had signed an agreement on REDD+ Himalaya-developing and using experience in implementing REDD+ in the Himalayas during 2015. This project has been completed recently. The ICIMOD director general David Molden has appreciated and congratulated the ICFRE director general Suresh Gairola for the partnership between ICIMOD and ICFRE for successfully implementing REDD+ Himalaya. He acknowledged the level of ICFRE’s commitment towards addressing a global challenge. As addressing deforestation and forest degradation requires a concerted effort across the region, ICIMOD looks forward for such partnership with ICFRE to make a significant improvement in the forestry sector of the Hindu Kush Himalayan (HKH) region.
[USA] Areas At Severe Risk of California Wildfires Are Home to 2.7 Million People, Analysis Finds
Associated Press, 11 April 2019
More than 2.7 million Californians live in areas highly vulnerable to devastating wildfires, according to an analysis by the McClatchy media company.
More than 350,000 of them live in communities that fall almost entirely within “very high fire hazard severity zones.”
The Northern California community of Paradise carried that official Cal Fire designation before the Camp Fire devastated the town last November. Eighty-five people were killed in the blaze.
U.S. forests changes are double-edged sword for environment
By Brian Wallheimer, Phys.org, 11 April 2019
Climate change, nitrogen deposition and fire suppression are leading to shifts in the types of trees that dominate American forests. These changes will have environmental consequences, potentially positive and negative, according to a Purdue University study.
Songlin Fei, a forest ecologist in Purdue’s Department of Forestry and Natural Resources, with colleagues from the U.S. Forest Service and Indiana University, developed a mycorrhizal tree map of the contiguous United States. The map, developed based on more than 3 million trees, shows the abundance of trees associated with mycorrhizal fungi, which have symbiotic relationships with tree roots.
[USA] Amazon says it’s a leader on fighting climate change. 5,000 employees disagree.
By Alexia Fernández Campbell, Vox, 11 April 2019
Amazon employees are using their influence as shareholders to push the company to take bolder action on climate change.
Since Tuesday, more than 5,000 employees have signed a letter to CEO Jeff Bezos and Amazon’s board of directors, pressuring them to come up with a companywide climate plan that would lead Amazon to transition to 100 percent renewable energy.
They also want Amazon to stop doing work for the oil and gas industry and to stop donating to members of Congress who vote against legislation to curb carbon emissions.
[USA] Victims of Ponzi scammer Renwick Haddow to appeal from judgment in case against JPMorgan
By Maria Nikolova, Finance Feeds, 11 April 2019
Less than a month after Judge Naomi Reice Buchwald of the New York Southern District Court dismissed a case brought by victims of Ponzi scammer Renwick Haddow against JPMorgan Chase & Co. (NYSE:JPM) and JPMorgan Chase Bank, the plaintiffs have stated their intentions to appeal from the judgment.
In a notice filed with the Court today, more than 200 victims of the scammer say they are appealing to the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit from a final Judgment granting the defendants’ motion to dismiss the first amended complaint entered in this action on March 13, 2019.
12 April 2019
How a sheriff in Brazil is using satellites to stop deforestation
By Jenny Gonzales, Mongabay, 12 April 2019
Before becoming the chief of police at the Police Specialized in Crimes Against the Environment (DEMA) in the northern Brazilian state of Amapá, Leonardo Brito had never worked in the environmental field or dealt with satellite imagery or mapping. However, this all changed when he started his new job in May 2018.
When he arrived at the DEMA office in Amapá last May, 35-year-old Brito found that the environmental police there rarely investigated environmental crimes. Most of their cases involved land disputes, thefts, and noise pollution from bars playing loud music. Cases involving deforestation arose rarely and only when there was a complaint.
Luxembourg, UN Environment sign deal to accelerate sustainable finance
UN environment press release, 12 April 2019
Luxembourg today signed an agreement to back a UN Environment-convened network that helps the world’s major financial centres to increase green and sustainable finance.
The International Network of Financial Centres for Sustainability (FC4S) has 22 members from Europe, Asia, Africa, and North America – each of them committed to shifting their investments to support the goals of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and the Paris Agreement.
Home to Europe’s largest investment fund center with a 62 per cent global market share in cross-border funds, along with136 international banks from 29 countries and over 35,000 listed tradable securities, Luxembourg is today one of the world’s leading financial centers.
[Malaysia] Forest fires flare up again in Similajau National Park
By Stephen Then, The Star, 12 April 2019
Forest fires have flared up again in the Similajau National Park in northern Sarawak.
The Sarawak Forestry Corporation (SFC) are sending in its volunteer fire-fighters to help those from Sarawak Bomba who are already there.
SFC chief executive officer Zolkipli Mohamad Aton said on Friday (April 12) that fires had been detected inside the park again.
13 April 2019
Gabon Takes Action Against Chinese Logging Company Following Damning Report
By Eric Olander, Medium, 13 April 2019
The Gabon government has suspended the logging license at two sites run by large, privately-owned Chinese logging company that allegedly engaged in widespread illegal activities, according to a report by Agence France Presse.
The Dejia Group was singled out last month in a damning report by the U.S.-arm of the Environmental Investigation Agency (EIA) after a four-year investigation that revealed the company “continuously [broke] the most fundamental forest laws, turned timber trade regulations upside down and diverted millions in unpaid taxes from the governments of Gabon and the Republic of Congo.”
Detecting Illegal Logging in the Peruvian Amazon
Monitoring of the Andean Amazon Project, 13 April 2019
In the Peruvian Amazon, most of the logging is selective (not clearcutting), with the targets being higher-value species. Thus, illegal logging is difficult to detect with satellite imagery.
In MAAP #85, however, we presented the potential of satellite imagery in identifying logging roads, which are one of the main indicators of logging activity in the remote Amazon.
[Thailand] Forest fires destroy 2.7 million rai of land whilst Chiang Mai is back on top
The Thaiger, 13 April 2019
Bush fires have devastated nearly 2.7 million rai (there are 2.5 Rai in an Acre) of forests in nine northern provinces.
The Mae Hong Son forest fire and haze control centre says that satellite imaging from the Geo-Informatics and Space Technology Development Agency shows that from January 1 to March 16, 2,680,634 rai was destroyed by wildfires.
[UK] British Steel seeks £100m government loan after EU scheme freeze
By Mark Kleinman, Sky News, 13 April 2019
The UK’s second-biggest steel producer is seeking an urgent £100m government loan after Theresa May’s failure to pass a Brexit deal left it frozen out of an EU-wide carbon trading scheme.
Sky News has learnt that British Steel, which directly employs 5,000 people, is in talks with Whitehall about securing the emergency funding within weeks.
Ministers have drafted in the professional services firm KPMG to advise them on the talks, which have been going on for several weeks, insiders said this weekend.
14 April 2019
[Guyana] Payments for forestry commission staff being delayed
Stabroek News, 14 April 2019
The staff of the Guyana Forestry Commission (GFC) is not being paid on time and Chairman of its Board Jocelyn Dow on Friday said it is owed millions.
After a presentation on the proficiency of the GFC’s Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+) project, Dow was questioned on complaints by GFC staff on emoluments and not being paid their salaries and wages, uniform allowances, and outstanding leave payments, among others. [R-M: Subscription needed.]
[Guyana] Norway-funded forest protection scheme saw 35% less deforestation over five-year period – researcher finds
Stabroek News, 14 April 2019
During the five years that the Norway-funded REDD+ (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation) project ran, Guyana recorded 35% less deforestation than it would’ve without the project, Anand Roopsind, a Guyanese PhD student from Boise State University, says.
Roopsind, who has worked with Conservation International – Guyana (CI-Guyana) as well as with the Guyana Forestry Commission (GFC), presented the findings of his PhD study yesterday afternoon at the GFC, where he said that the REDD+ project resulted in 35% less deforestation over the 2010-2015 period, which amounts to approximately 12.8 million tonnes of carbon dioxide not being emitted into the atmosphere.
[Mozambique] Idai: a story of a storm
By Daniel Voskoboynik, The World At 1°C, 14 April 2019
A month ago today, Cyclone Idai barreled across the Indian Ocean towards the southeastern coast of Africa. Torrential rains before and after the cyclone, would leave a trail of flash floods, storm surges, and landslides across Malawi, Zimbabwe, and Mozambique, even affecting Madagascar.
The humanitarian catastrophe across the region continues to unfold, as the staggering destruction comes further to light. Rubble is still being cleared, death counts edited. It will take months to fully identify the victims, years to rebuild, let alone ‘recover’. Scores of people are still missing. Hundreds of thousands are estimated to have been left homeless, and millions affected. Major parts of cities such as Beira, or entire districts such as Chimanimani in Zimbabwe, have experienced significant damage, with the storm leaving a sea of detritus — collapsed houses, caved community buildings, toppled power lines, washed out roads, burst dams, and spoiled water supplies — in its vicious wake.