REDD-Monitor’s round-up of the week’s news on forests, climate change, and REDD. For regular updates, follow @reddmonitor on Twitter.
28 November 2016
How Your Retirement Funds Contribute to Climate Change and Deforestation
By Mike Gaworecki, Pacific Standard, 28 November 2016
Even as a new administration hostile to efforts to combat global warming is poised to take over the White House, climate activists in the United States are continuing to push for action in myriad and sometimes even unexpected ways. For instance, you may not realize that saving for your golden years could have an impact on the global climate, but a movement is currently underway to make the retirement funds relied on by millions of Americans free of any connection to deforestation and associated carbon emissions due to investments in palm oil producers.
COP 22 Forests and Climate Update: Increasing Forests’ Contribution to Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation
By Elsa Tsioumani, IISD, 28 November 2016
Conservation, sustainable management and restoration of forests are considered one of the most efficient and cost-effective responses to climate change. A series of events convened during the UN Climate Change Conference, held from 7-18 November 2016, in Marrakesh, Morocco, reviewed progress regarding implementation of global forest-related commitments, identified linkages, challenges and opportunities for increased contribution of forests to climate change mitigation and adaptation, and showcased best practices and tools to strengthen synergies and improve implementation of forest- and climate-related commitments.
Matt Hansen: ‘With satellites, you don’t look at a single pixel. It only makes sense on a landscape scale.’
By Leona Liu, CIFOR Forest News, 28 November 2016
Matt Hansen is a professor in the Geographical Sciences Department at the University of Maryland. He spoke on the sidelines of the Global Landscapes Forum about what technology means for the global climate agenda.
How is technology helping with the climate change agenda?
Remote sensing by definition is the idea that you can say something about an object, which you can’t touch. So it’s the same thing as our eyes. We can integrate all this information across our field of view and fill in the gaps.
[Tanzania] Ancient hunter-gatherer tribe protects traditional forest with help from carbon trading
By Sophie Tremblay and Willy Lowry, mongabay.com, 28 November 2016
“Carbon,” said Mzee Sinze while sitting in the shade of an ancient, giant Baobab tree. “Carbon is very important to us Hadzabe.”
It’s not the answer one might expect from a tribal elder when asked why the forest is important to the hunter-gatherer Hadzabe tribe. But Sinze has a good reason for his statement.
“When you look around you see these beautiful trees and they belong to the Hadzabe,” he said. “From the mountains all around you can see the forest and this is because of carbon.”
Nestled between two rocky escarpments, the Yaeda Valley in Tanzania is home to the Hadzabe, one of the last remaining hunter-gatherer tribes in the world. The landscape is part of the Great Rift Valley that slices its way through much of the continent. Anthropologists believe the tribe has roamed the valley floor and surrounding acacia woodland for more than 40,000 years.
[UK] Boiler room gang jailed over £7.5m landbanking fraud
By Natalie Holt, Money Marketing, 28 November 2016
Four men have been jailed over a boiler room scam that defrauded 193 vicitims of £7.5m through a scheme selling land at inflated prices.
The men were sentenced following an investigation by City of London Police. The details of the case can only now be made public after reporting restrictions were lifted.
James Byrne set up the boiler room in 2008, initially named Paramount Land, with various umbrella companies set up in order to move money around. Directors Sam Exall and Michael Foran helped to run the operation while Max Jefferys made the sales calls to victims.
29 November 2016
Understanding REDD+ across the globe
CIFOR, 29 November 2016
The global framework to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation known as REDD+ is ambitious and groundbreaking.
After years of national, sub-national and project-level experimentation, focused, innovative research is required to understand REDD+ successes and failures amid diverse local conditions.
Looking at REDD+ across the globe, a continuing Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR) project – now in its third phase – is striving to ensure those impacted by and working to prevent deforestation have the best information and tools available to them. The Global Comparative Study on REDD+ (GCS REDD+) project is supported by the Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation (Norad). It counts on further funding from the International Climate Initiative (IKI) of the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety (BMUB), USAID and the CGIAR Research Program on Forests, Trees and Agroforestry (CRP-FTA), with financial support from the donors contributing to the CGIAR Fund.
A Path Forward for Forests And The Planet
by Michael Jenkins, Ecosystem Marketplace, 29 November 2016
On November 19, the 22nd Conference of the Parties of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (COP 22) ended in Marrakesh. It was at COP 21, just last December, in Paris that 195 countries came together to adopt the historic agreement to mobilize global action against climate change. Many called it the most important treaty ever. Working at the front lines, Forest Trends fought to ensure that forests were at the center of the Paris Agreement, and now over 100 nations have identified forest conservation and restoration as part of their strategies to fight climate change. Indeed, simply conserving and restoring our world’s forests could carry us a quarter of the way toward avoiding catastrophic global warming.
As we approach year-end, I wanted to share my reflections with you of the way forward. I hope you will join with us to support Forest Trends in our ever more important efforts.
EU cement giants net €5bn carbon market windfall
By Megan Darby, Climate Home, 29 November 2016
The EU carbon market is supposed to make polluters pay. But generous handouts to industries deemed at risk of losing business abroad are undermining the system, a watchdog has warned.
Cement producers reaped a €5 billion windfall from the emissions trading system (ETS) between 2008 and 2015, their annual reports reveal.
Companies like Lafarge, Heidelberg and Cemex profited from selling carbon allowances they received for free, substituting cheaper international offsets and passing through costs to customers.
Carbon Market Watch, which used analysis by consultancy CE Delft, is urging EU lawmakers to end the bonanza. The environmental committee meets to discuss carbon market reform on 8 December.
Labor abuses found at Indonesian plantations supplying global companies: Amnesty
By Eveline Danubrata and Bernadette Christina Munthe, Reuters, 29 November 2016
Global consumer companies, including Unilever, Nestle, Kellogg and Procter & Gamble, have sourced palm oil from Indonesian plantations where labour abuses were uncovered, Amnesty International said on Wednesday.
Children as young as eight worked in “hazardous” conditions at palm plantations run by Singapore-based Wilmar International Ltd and its suppliers on the Indonesian islands of Kalimantan and Sumatra, Amnesty said in a report.
Amnesty, which said it interviewed 120 workers, alleges that many of them worked long hours for low pay and without adequate safety equipment. The palm oil from these plantations could be traced to nine multinational companies, it said.
[USA] California targets dairy cows to combat global warming
By Terence Chea, AP, 29 November 2016
California is taking its fight against global warming to the farm.
The nation’s leading agricultural state is now targeting greenhouse gases produced by dairy cows and other livestock.
Despite strong opposition from farmers, Gov. Jerry Brown signed legislation in September that for the first time regulates heat-trapping gases from livestock operations and landfills.
Cattle and other farm animals are major sources of methane, a greenhouse gas many times more potent than carbon dioxide as a heat-trapping gas. Methane is released when they belch, pass gas and make manure.
30 November 2016
Another reason to be worried about climate change.
By Alexander Verbeek, Medium, 30 November 2016
A recent study published in Nature has revealed that global warming will cause a massive loss of carbon directly from the soil, and this will accelerate climate change beyond our previous expectations. The study predicts that a total of more than 55 trillion Kg of carbon will be emitted from the soil by 2050, a value that is equal to about 17% of the direct anthropogenic emissions over that time.
This value is approximately equivalent to having another USA on the planet, emitting all of its CO2 all over again. And the worrying thing is that, as the climate gets warmer and warmer, these losses of soil carbon will increase. Protecting soil carbon stocks against rising atmospheric temperatures will be even more necessary than previously expected in the fight against climate change.
Loss of soil carbon due to climate change will be ‘huge’
Netherlands Institute of Ecology press release, 30 November 2016
55 trillion kilograms: that’s how much carbon could be released into the atmosphere from the soil by mid-century if climate change isn’t stopped. And all in the form of greenhouse gases such as CO2 and methane. Tom Crowther (NIOO-KNAW) and his team are publishing the results of a worldwide study into the effects of climate change on the soil in the issue of Nature that comes out on 1 December.
For decades, scientists have speculated that rising global temperatures might affect the huge amount of carbon stored in the soil. Carbon is one of the building blocks of life, and nowhere on land are larger carbon stocks to be found than in the soil.
Still no closure for UN offsetting scheme review
By Juliane Voigt, Carbon Market Watch, 30 November 2016
At the COP 22 climate conference in Marrakesh, countries continued debating the review of the UN’s Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), which will serve as a model for the newly established Sustainable Development Mechanism (SDM). Parties generally shied away from controversial topics, such as demands to establish a grievance mechanism. In order for the CDM review to be useful for future market mechanisms, critical issues have to be addressed before it can be closed.
The Clean Development Mechanism was supposed to reduce emissions in a cost-effective way and to bring sustainable development in developing countries. Over 10 years of experience with the CDM has shown that numerous projects do not live up to their sustainable development promises, but on the contrary can have even negative social and environmental impacts.
The Carbon Chronicle
Ecosystem Marketplace, 30 November 2016
In the month since our last newsletter, the world has experienced some extraordinary events. On November 4, the Paris Climate Agreement entered into force way ahead of schedule. On November 7, the United Nations annual climate conference kicked off in Marrakesh, Morocco with participants intending to establish a roadmap to implement Paris Agreement objectives. And on November 8, the United States elected Donald Trump as its new president.
Outwardly, the Marrakesh talks continued as if the election hadn’t even taken place, with countries around the world vowing to keep the process moving forward, and countries like China offering to help fill any leadership or funding gaps that open up under a Trump presidency. As a result, private sector actors and carbon market practitioners expressed tentative optimism – in part because of growing sustainability efforts among individual US states, but also because of the president-elect’s purported love of making deals.
[Brazil] Deforestation Of The Amazon Up 29 Percent From Last Year, Study Finds
By Camila Domonoske, NPR, 30 November 2016
An annual study released by the Brazilian government estimates that the rate of deforestation in the Amazon has increased by 29 percent over last year.
That’s the second year in a row that deforestation in the Amazon quickened; last year, the pace rose by about 24 percent.
The estimated deforestation rate, released Tuesday by Brazil’s National Institute for Space Research (INPE), is based on satellite imagery. The institute found that from August 2015 to July 2016, the Amazon rainforest was deforested at an estimated rate of 7,989 square kilometers (more than 3,000 square miles).
The year before, it was 6,207 square kilometers. Two years ago, it was barely over 5,000 square kilometers.
Land grabs and the International Criminal Court: will Cambodia’s kleptocrats finally face justice?
By Neil Loughlin and Tom Johnson, ID Monitor, 30 November 2016
On 15th September the International Criminal Court broadened its process for selecting and prioritising cases to include land grabbing and environmental destruction. The decision presents an opportunity to curb the deforestation and rights abuses driven by illegally-issued agricultural concessions in Cambodia, likely to be the court’s first credible case. It also has important implications for other countries suffering from the worst excesses of illegal deforestation.
Protecting Biodiversity and Livelihoods in Cameroon
Rainforest Alliance, 30 November 2016
The biodiversity-rich Congo Basin contains 10,000 species of tropical plants, 400 species of mammals, 700 species of fish, and 1,000 species of birds. Included in the wildlife population are endangered creatures such as lowland and mountain gorillas, chimpanzees, bonobos, and forest elephants.
There is also an abundance of human diversity. The Congo Basin is home to more than 150 different ethnic groups, and like most forest-dependent peoples, these communities possess an incredible amount of knowledge about local biodiversity as well as the harvest and practical use of local forest products. This type of trade has the potential to support people’s livelihoods, providing a stable source of economic growth.
[India] Forest fires turning into a burning issue in the Nilgiris
The Hindu, 30 November 2016
Fires have been breaking out across the Nilgiris over the last few days, causing damage to forests, revenue and patta land. The lack of rainfall, coupled with ground frost in the morning, has exacerbated conditions by quickly drying out vegetation, turning them to tinder which feed more fires, Forest Department personnel said.
A fire broke out on Tuesday on a section of revenue land along the Udhagamandalam-Coonoor Road, and bordering a forest.
The fire could possibly have been caused by human activity, forest and fire department officials said. The fire raged for more than an hour, before it burnt itself out.
Indonesia shifts emissions-reduction burden from energy to forestry sector
By Fidelis E. Satriastanti, mongabay.com, 30 November 2016
Ahead of the recent UN climate summit in the Moroccan capital of Marrakesh, Indonesia shifted the burden for cutting its greenhouse gas emissions from its energy sector to its forestry sector, further solidifying the archipelago nation’s dependency on fossil fuels in the coming years.
Indonesia’s country commitment for reducing its emissions, known as an Intended Nationally Determined Contribution, was settled last year at 29 percent by 2030, or at 41 percent with adequate foreign aid. Exactly where those cuts will come from, however, has been subject to a longer negotiation between the Ministry of Environment and Forestry and the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources.
Haven in peril: Aceh activists lose class action over Indonesia’s Leuser rainforest
By Jewel Topsfield and Karuni Rompies, The Sydney Morning Herald, 30 November 2016
Activists warn the last place on Earth where elephants, tigers, rhinoceroses and orangutans coexist in the wild could be destroyed by mining and palm oil plantations after a Jakarta court ruled against their bid to protect a Sumatran rain forest.
A group of citizens from the Sumatran province of Aceh launched a class action against the Aceh government’s land use plan, which they say legalises roads through the world-renowned Leuser Ecosystem and opens the area up for further development.
Swedish government commission proposes airline climate tax
By Johan Ahlander, Reuters, 30 November 2016
A government-appointed commission recommended on Wednesday that airlines operating in Sweden should pay a tax of between 80 and 430 Swedish crowns ($9-47) per passenger and flight to compensate for climate pollution.
One the levy is instituted, the cost of a domestic flight would rise by 80 crowns and an international flight by 280 to 430 and crowns, depending on the distance of the flight.
Under current rules in the Nordic state, airlines pay value-added tax of 6 percent on domestic flights while international flights are exempt from VAT.
The centre-left government’s plans for an airline tax has been criticized by opposition parties who say it would do little to reduce carbon dioxide and would harm the airline industry.
1 December 2016
Climate change escalating so fast it is ‘beyond point of no return’
By Peter Walker, The Independent, 1 December 2016
Global warming is beyond the “point of no return”, according to the lead scientist behind a ground-breaking climate change study.
The full impact of climate change has been underestimated because scientists haven’t taken into account a major source of carbon in the environment.
Dr Thomas Crowther’s report has concluded that carbon emitted from soil was speeding up global warming.
The findings, which say temperatures will increase by 1C by 2050, are already being adopted by the United Nations.
COPtimism: Five Reasons to Be Optimistic About Climate
Rainforest Alliance, 1 December 2016
Droughts. Floods. Wildfires. Hurricanes. Every day seems to bring another news story about damage wrought by climate change. And since the international Paris Agreement for climate action was signed this time last year, the levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere have continued to soar, making 2016 the hottest year on record. In other words, don’t expect the news stories about climate-related calamities to slow down anytime soon.
And now the United States, a leading signatory of the historic Paris Agreement, has elected a climate change-denying president.
Can “Radical Transparency” Save Forests And Slow Climate Change?
By Steve Zwick, Ecosystem Marketplace, 1 December 2016
Kevin Rabinovitch stands straight and speaks in clear, clipped tones – more like a naval officer than a corporate quant – as, on the screen behind him, a daunting mass of threads and whorls illustrates the global flows of Brazilian soybeans from thousands of individual municipalities across Brazil, through specific exporters and importers, to countries around the world.
“We buy a lot of soy from Brazil,” he says. “But we also buy things that eat soy in Brazil before we buy them,” he continues, referring to the chickens and cows that end up in pet food manufactured by food giant Mars Inc, where he’s Global Director of Sustainability.
Known for its ubiquitous Mars and Milky Way candy bars, privately-held Mars, Inc also makes Whiskas cat food, Wrigley’s chewing gum, and dozens of other products that require tens of thousands of tons of cattle, soy, and palm oil – all of which are packaged in products derived from pulp & paper.
Forests must not be used to undermine climate commitments
By Kelsey Perlman, Carbon Market Watch, 1 December 2016
Forests and land-use remain a contentious issue in climate negotiations, but are an essential part of many countries’ climate pledges. The sector should be used as an additional climate tool, not as an excuse to reduce ambition in others.
At the UN climate conference in Marrakesh, discussions on land use remained gridlocked because of the usual divide between rich and developing nations. Rich nations emphasise detailed accounting and mitigation, while poor countries want flexibility in various reporting requirements and finance for implementing their climate pledges.
More work needed to make aviation’s climate tool fit for purpose
By Kelsey Perlman, Carbon Markets Watch, 1 December 2016
Climate action is multiplying outside of the UN climate talks (UNFCCC), from the Kigali Agreement on the highly potent greenhouse gas HFCs to International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) agreeing to offset emissions from international aviation. Nevertheless, they all have connections to the UNFCCC where the bulk of the world’s effort against climate change is managed.
Particular attention must be given to ICAO’s Carbon Offsetting and Reduction Scheme for International Aviation (CORSIA) as the sectoral offsetting mechanism will buy UNFCCC carbon credits from projects in other sectors.
MEP compromise on EU ETS reform still feasible: Update
Argus, 1 December 2016
The European Parliament’s environment committee could reach a compromise on reform of the EU emissions trading scheme (ETS) before an 8 December vote, the rapporteur for the process, MEP Ian Duncan, has said.
Duncan is responsible for steering the legislation, which will determine the rules for phase 4 (2021-20) of the cap-and-trade programme, through parliament.
Lead MEPs representing their respective political parties failed to reach a deal on Duncan’s draft proposal at a meeting yesterday evening, after which he said the December vote was “in jeopardy”.
But Duncan said today that he is still working towards a vote on 8 December and that he is optimistic that consensus can be reached. No more shadow rapporteur meetings are scheduled — it now falls to him to “knock heads together” to make groups see “where compromises could lie”.
[India] Capping aviation emissions will affect sector’s growth: Govt
The Economic Times, 1 December 2016
Government today said it has opposed capping of aviation emissions at 2020 level as such a mechanism would adversely affect the growth of the sector in developing countries.
The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) General Assembly in Montreal had on October 7 this year passed a resolution, resolving to implement the world’s first global regime for combating carbon emissions from aircraft.
The global market based mechanism (GMBM) are aimed at making essential contributions towards aviation sector’s goal of carbon neutral growth from 2020 onward.
How to relieve poverty in India without endangering the planet
By Frank Brennan, Eureka Street, 1 December 2016
Last week I was in India delivering the annual Tata Oration on business ethics, wrestling with the great ethical challenge of striking an appropriate balance between poverty alleviation and climate change.
India has some of the most difficult decisions to make when determining how much cheap electricity might be produced to lift people from poverty while making the planet less liveable for their descendants.
[Indonesia] “Sustainable” palm oil has a legal problem
Illegal Deforestation Monitor, 1 December 2016
In early November, the major producers, financiers and buyers of palm oil gathered in Bangkok for the annual meeting of the Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil. The RSPO has an ostensibly simple mission, to oversee a system that certifies palm oil against an agreed set of rules, allowing that palm oil to be traded as “sustainable”.
Its annual meeting is the place where the competing tensions within the RSPO and its various constituencies come briefly together, in a fancy hotel, to spend a few days pulling it in one direction or another. Among the items on the agenda this year was a panel session entitled “How Legal and Traceable are your FFBs?”
Indonesia’s Forest-Fire Problem Is Nowhere Close to Being Solved. Here’s Why
By Per Liljas, Time, 1 December 2016
Brake lights illuminate a mound of spiny palm fruits lying beside a road outside Tesso Nilo National Park on the Indonesian island of Sumatra. Laborers are spearing them and heaving them onto the bed of a truck when two farmers approach.
“Sure, we’re growing oil palm in the national park, so what?” one of them shouts at TIME. “Foreigners always come and cause problems. If you were from an environmental organization, we would’ve smashed your car. And then you’re lucky. In the next village they would’ve killed you!”
[Indonesia] Nazir Foead: ‘The keyword for us is cooperation’
By Leona Liu, CIFOR Forests News, 1 December 2016
Nazir Foead is the head of Indonesia’s newly established Peatland Restoration Agency (BRG). The agency was appointed by President Joko Widodo in January 2016, with the task of restoring 2 million hectares of the country’s peatland within five years. Nazir spoke on the sidelines of the Global Landscapes Forum in Marrakesh about the need to take a landscape approach to restoring degraded peatland in Indonesia.
Tell me about the mission of the Peatland Restoration Agency.
After the massive fires we had in 2015, we realized that it’s almost impossible to put out fires on peatland. So the best strategy is, of course, to prevent the fires happening in the first place on peatland. And that would mean that we need to recognize that a lot of our peatland has been drained or degraded. So we need to restore the ecological and hydrological functions of peatland, to keep it wet and moist, even during the dry season, so it will not easily burn. To prevent peat fires. And the task of the Peatland Restoration Agency is to restore this drained peatland.
Indonesia VP blames foreign countries for destroying forests
By Saifulbahri Ismail, Channel News Asia, 1 December 2016
Indonesian Vice President Jusuf Kalla has blamed foreign countries for destroying Indonesia’s forests, and wants them to pay to help restore the damaged land.
“What happens here is not only our problem. The foreign people also destroyed our forests,” said Kalla when officiating the Indonesia Forest Congress in Jakarta on Wednesday (Nov 30).
Kalla said he has brought up this point at various international forums, and is angry with those who accused Indonesia for not managing its forest well.
“During a big conference in Tokyo, someone said that Indonesia has forests, but they are damaged and should be restored,” said Kalla. “I became angry in front of thousands of people. I said, ‘this is a chair, this is a door, this is a window from my country. You take, and pay $5, and you bring it here, and sell for $100. Indonesian companies just get $5’.
2 December 2016
Are our choices driving forest destruction?
By Theo Constantinou, Friends of the Earth, 2 December 2016
Theo Constantinou and Jeff Conant talk again in part two of the three-part interview series about who is invested in forest destruction and how people can use their consumer power to align their money with their values. See part I here.
TC: In The City of God, St. Augustine tells the story about a pirate who had been brought before Alexander the Great:
Indeed, that was an apt and true reply which was given to Alexander the Great by a pirate who had been seized. For when that king had asked the man what he meant by keeping hostile possession of the sea, he answered with bold pride, “What thou meanest by seizing the whole earth; but because I do it with a petty ship, I am called a robber, whilst thou who does it with a great fleet art styled emperor.”
3 December 2016
How Big Banks Are Putting Rain Forests in Peril
By Hiroko Tabuchi, The New York Times, 3 December 2016
In early 2015, scientists monitoring satellite images at Global Forest Watch raised the alarm about the destruction of rain forests in Indonesia.
Environmental groups raced to the scene in West Kalimantan province, on the island of Borneo, to find a charred wasteland: smoldering fires, orangutans driven from their nests, and signs of an extensive release of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere.
“There was pretty much no forest left,” said Karmele Llano Sánchez, director of the nonprofit International Animal Rescue’s orangutan rescue group, which set out to save the endangered primates. “All the forest had burned.”
Harnessing multi-purpose productive landscapes for integrated climate and development goals
By Peter Holmgren, CIFOR Forest News, 3 December 2016
The Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR) welcomes the ratification and early entry into force of the Paris Agreement. This is a major step towards effective global climate action. We also welcome the recent progress on REDD+ results based payments at the Green Climate Fund.
The land sector will be key in achieving the well below 2 or 1.5 degree goal agreed in Paris and this is clearly reflected in the long term goal of net zero emissions, Article 5 and the Preamble of the Agreement. This role however is not limited to that of forests or agriculture in isolation, but across the landscape. It will be the actions that are taken on the ground by smallholder farmers, local communities, small to medium business and other non-state as well as State actors that will drive the outcomes concerning climate. Climate mitigation and adaptation will inevitably be a co benefit of the actions taken across the landscape.
[Indonesia] Ministry Recovers More Than a Million Hectares of Forests in 2016
By Indriani, Jakarta Globe, 3 December 2016
The Ministry of Environment and Forestry’s law enforcement efforts have shown positive signs in eradication environmental crimes across the country, recovering more than a million hectares and preventing at least 22 instances of illegal logging during the past year.
“As seen from the last 17 operations conducted throughout 2016, the ministry managed to recover approximately 1,058,538 hectares of land. If combined with the 27 operations conducted last year, approximately 4,131,736 hectares of land has recovered,” Rasio Ridho Sani, director general of law enforcement at the Environment and Forestry Ministry, said in Jakarta on Friday (02/12).
The ministry’s law enforcement efforts to prevent destruction and protect forest conservation areas, protected forests and production forests is based on a map of a forest crime vulnerability, Rasio said. Prevention and security include information dissemination, regular patrols and recovery operations.