in Mexico, USA

REDD Alert in Chiapas, Mexico

REDD Alert in Chiapas, Mexico. PHOTO: Orin Langelle

The village of Amador Hernández is in the Montes Azules Biosphere Reserve, Chiapas, Mexico. Since last year, the community has been denied medical supplies and the government has suspended emergency transport of seriously ill people from the area. Villagers are concerned that the suspension of medical services is precursor to eviction under a REDD plan that is currently starting up.

The photograph to the left is of a father holding his son in Amador Hernández. The photographer, Orin Langelle of the Global Justice Ecology Project, reports that “Earlier that day (March 24, 2011) the boy had had convulsions; by the next day, several others from the community had experienced the same thing. Drinking water from the community supply was suspected.”

Villagers from Amador Hernández have written a communiqué and are asking for signatures to a letter to the Mexican government and to the government of Chiapas. The communiqué and letter are posted below. To sign on to the letter, please send your name, organisation (if any), and country to: .

In March 2011, members of the Global Justice Ecology Project travelled to Chiapas to investigate a REDD deal signed between the governors of Chiapas and California. They write that,

What we found was an astonishingly complex web of economic development projects being imposed on campesino and indigenous communities without any semblance of free, prior, and informed consent. Among these projects is a government program to delimit Natural Protected Areas in order to generate carbon credits, and to pay some indigenous communities to protect these areas, to the detriment of others. As we’ve seen in other parts of the world, the REDD Program, in both intention and in operation, divides communities and breeds conflict.

On 2-3 April 2011, more than 300 people from local campesino organisations met in the village of Patihuitz. They produced a Declaration of Patihuitz, which is posted in full, below (in English and Spanish).

Letter to High-ranking Officials of the Mexican Federal Government and the Government of Chiapas

This letter is collectively addressed to the three Federal and three State authorities mentioned in the text of the action alert. The denounced actions demonstrate, by omission or commission, and in greater or lesser degree, the probable implication and coordination of each and every one of these government agencies in conceiving, designing, implementing or tolerating the actions and aggressions addressed here.

Of the federal and state public health officials, WE ASK:

  • That you reestablish the withdrawn health services, under the terms and conditions set by the affected communities, acting within their rights granted by the law, in order to prevent further aggressions;
  • That you make public the legal reasoning behind this inhumane affront;
  • That you sanction those responsible, and those complicit.

Of the Secretary of Agrarian Reform, WE ASK:

  • That you order a halt to the delimiting of the Lacandon Community Zone (la brecha lacandona), until you have the consent of all of the neighboring communities that will be affected, and thus avoid conflicts between our communities;
  • That you cease sending your employees to the region of Amador Hernández to use lies to attempt to convince people to participate in the FANAR Program (previously known as PROCEDE);

Of the Governor of Chiapas WE ASK:

  • That you suspend the state REDD+ Project in the Lacandon Community Zone, as it constitutes a counterinsurgency plan that promotes conflicts between neighboring communities;
  • That you stop lying to the indigenous peoples regarding the climate-related objectives of the REDD+ Project in Chiapas, and declare its true purpose: to conserve and recuperate biodiversity in the areas of greatest biological wealth in order to turn it over to the control and exploitation of transnational interests;

Of the officials of the Interior Ministries, both Federal and State, WE ASK:

  • That you prevent any attacks, threats, or unconstitutional actions that could be directed in any way toward people or civil society groups who, through their work of solidarity, support the promotion of health in the communities of the region of Amador Hernández.


To sign alert, send name, organization (if any), country and email to:

Communiqué from Amador Hernández, Chiapas:

We, the residents of the Amador Hernández region in Chiapas, which forms the core of the Montes Azules Biosphere Reserve, well-known for its extraordinary biological richness, and is the site of historic resistance by indigenous peoples, denounce that the illegal threats by the bad government to expel us, culturally and physically, from our territories, have moved from words to deeds.

Our opposition to the theft of our territory, as decreed in May 2007; our rejection of the unilateral delimiting of the agrarian border of the Lacandona Community demanded by investors in projects associated with the REDD+ Project; our refusal to accept the conservationist programs of “payment for environmental services” and “productive land reconversion,” and our decision to reinitiate a process of self-determined community health based in our traditional medicine, together have aroused the arrogance of the bad government, motivating them to advance a “new” counterinsurgency strategy to undermine our resistance.

It is a strategy that doles out sickness and death, dose by dose.

The strategy has consisted in an “administrative” withdrawal of health and medical services to our communities. It began in March 2010, with the suspension of aerial evacuations that had been offered to transport our gravely ill (where we live there are no roads). Also beginning last March, the only medical personnel we have seen are medical solidarity brigades. Shipments of medical supplies have been drastically reduced, and halted altogether since last November, and much of the medicine we have left is now expired. Since last September we have received no vaccines and no insulin. And, as if it were a message, during this entire period the only pharmaceuticals they have continued to send, and which now fill the shelves of our abandoned health clinics, are birth control medications.

We have sent letters and more letters to the supervisor of Health District IX, in Ocosingo, asking that medical services be restored. We have received no answer.

The deaths of children and old people in hospitals where the majority arrive only to die, began in May. If it had not been for the reaction of our communities, who organized to buy the most urgently needed medicines, for the support of our traditional remedies, and for the solidarity of medics and healthworkers from civil society, today the region of Amador Hernández would be suffering hundreds of grave illnesses and dozens of deaths – a scenario which, in the calculus of the bad government, would have forced us to surrender control over our territory and to renounce the self-development of our traditional community healthcare programs.

One more thing: the confrontation. This past month of February, the governor of Chiapas, Juan Sabines, traveled to the Lacandóna Community to make the first payments of the state-run REDD+ program; as he doled out the money, he told the beneficiaries that it should not be considered as a gift, but as a payment to guard the border against their neighbors – that is, us.

As the fields we cultivate are precisely on the border with this Community, and planting season has begun, we fear that these new community guardians might take advantage of the situation to provoke a confrontation which will, in turn, justify the intervention of pubic security forces and the installation of military encampments, as occurred in 1999.

This would facilitate the completion of the delimiting of the Reserve, which is a condition for accessing transnational REDD+ funds. For its part, the Mexican government would thus obtain tactical positions from which to exert pressure, monitoring, and destabilization of our territory, as it tried to do in 1999.

The war of power continues. For the indigenous peoples, who have freely and bravely decided to walk our own destiny on a different path from that of the political regime and the economic system that turns everything into merchandise and thievery, the bad government sends illness and slow death, and projects that fortify intercommunity conflicts, paid for now by the resources associated with REDD+. And all in the name of service to humanity.

No to the demarcating of the Lacandon Border that robs us of our land! No to the commodification of our Mother Earth! Yes to the right to health, and to life, and to our indigenous culture!


“Divided, we become allies of the Government”

During the days April 2 and 3, 2011, more than 300 delegates of regional campesino and indigenous organizations gathered in the Forum: Indigenous and Campesino Prespectives on the Climate Crisis and the False Solutions, to dialogue and analyze the situation in which our communities are living right now. During these dialogues, the memory of our compañero Porfirio Encino was present among us; eight years after his passing, his acts and his thinking continue to live in our hearts.

We came from different parts of the State of Chiapas to unite with our brothers and sisters from the jungle of Ocosingo; over the course of two days we shared the challenges that we see arising at the local, state, and national level.

Following our discussions, we conclude:

1. The peoples and communities of Chiapas reject policies that benefit only large national and international capital interests. These policies are manifestations of the neoliberal project that dominates the planet, and is provoking more poverty, marginalization, and exclusion of campesinos and indigenous peoples in Chiapas and around the world

2. The poorest of the poor find ourselves in a permanent crisis. In the world and in our country, we hear about the food crisis, the climate crisis, and the economic crisis. But in our communities we have a permanent crisis whose history is in the history of the Conquest and in the governments whose prime objective is the continual enrichment of the dominant class. Public money is used to enrich the political and economic classes of this country, with only crumbs given to the people through poverty alleviation programs, which, themselves, are a business for corrupt bureaucrats and service providers. These programs do not address the root causes of poverty.

3. As indigenous and peasant communities we are being denied the responsibility of feeding our people. Now, it is the transnational corporations that produce, distribute, and commercialize food, and who also want to appropriate the seeds that we’ve developed and improved over the course of thousands of years. The government would prefer that our communities be fed by foreigners, rather than desiging and promoting public policies that support the production, distribution, and sale of food from our own communities, which would simultaneously serve to strengthen peasant and indigenous agricultural production.

4. The current food crisis also signifies an increase in the price of food, which means that every day we have less economic capacity to purchase basic staples. In indigenous and campesino communities, access to food is made even more difficult due to our low levels of income and because the marginalization we suffer makes price increases that much more difficult to bear. For this reason, it is necessary that we be able to continue producing our own food and that small-scale agriculture be recognized as the most viable method for food production and for cooling the planet.

5. Our lands and territories are at risk. The conservation programs that are being implemented today have as their primary goal the transformation of our natural resources into commodities.

6. We express our urgent concern about disinformation regarding the REDD Program as it is being implemented in the Lacandón Jungle. We consider that in the medium and long term it will not benefit the peoples and communities that live here, but that it will benefit the transnational corporations that stand to make huge profits from the carbon market. It will generate the privatization of forests, the expulsion of communities, and increasing financial speculation. Carbon markets are one of the false solutions to global warming being promoted by transnational corporations and governments.

7. In Chiapas, the operation of REDD has already begun stimulating landgrabs from pueblos and communities. Three facts confirm this: 1) the agreement signed between the government of California, USA (the most polluting state in the world) and the government of Chiapas for the sale of carbon credits; 2) the decree of the Law for Adaptation and Mitigation of Climate Change in the State of Chiapas on December 7, 2010, and 3) the signing of the Pact for Respect and Conservation of the Lacandón Jungle in December of 2010 to give economic support to the landholders of the Lacandon community to preserve the jungle and allow the sale of carbon credits to the government of California.

8. Global warming will not be solved by the privatization of natural resources. Its root causes can be traced to current models of production, distribution, consumption, and commerce, which are based in the concentration of capital (more wealth for the few); massive consumption of fossil fuels (oil); overproduction and free trade. All of these are characteristics of transnational capital, which is seeking to continue expanding its dominance over the entire planet.

In these moments, in which peoples and communities, and specifically the Lacandón jungle, are subject to the multiple pressures of landgrabs, incomplete processes of agrarian reform, extreme poverty and conflict over natural resources, indigenous and campesino organizations manifest that:

1. We need access to adequate information in order to decide how to best confront global warming. The Federal and State governments give priority to solutions proposed by transnational coprorations and international governments, rather than hearing the demands voiced by campesinos and indigenous peoples.

2. The REDD program is not a solution to global warming. Its objective is the privatization of carbon, land, air, seeds, water and other resources. Its final objective is that industrialzed countries “buy” the right to pollute, at the cost of the lands, territories, and natural resources of the indigenous peoples and peasant farmers.

3. We demand that conservation programs must be sustained by the vision and practice of indigenous and campesino communities. We are convinced that smallholder peasant farming and community forestry can cool the planet.

4. The production of food is a family and community obligation. The policies of the Federal and State governments should be oriented toward the food sovereignty of our peoples. We close the door to the transnationals.

5. Those of us in this Forum value sustainable peasant agriculture. For this reason we insist that it is the solution to both the food crisis and the crisis of global warming that we are suffering today.

6. We demand that primary and secondary education take into account ecological perspectives on global warming, and the solutions proposed by our peoples. But it is also important that we design and implement our own programs of environmental education, in ways that are autonomous and in solidarity with civil society organizations whose ethic is to accompany popular struggles. We reject those who join our work in order to attempt to discredit us later.

7. As peoples and communities we take the conservation of natural resources into our own hands. We will be fomenting new forms of organization for action and protest to make our initiatives and our proposals heard.

8. We are moving toward a constant mobilization to awaken the consciousness of our compañeros and compañeras throughout the region. We need to generate more information in our communities, aware of the fact that television and the press are all in the pocket of the government, and always speak in the government’s favor. We are aware that the reality behind what the media portrays, is other.

9. We promote the defense of our native seeds, which is necessary to recuperate and restore our agrarian history, in order to improve our crops. We resist the privatization of seeds by interests such as Monsanto.

10. We will implement community laws to procure the conservation of natural resources and the establishment of agroecology for food production.

11. We call for an immediate halt to the theft of lands, territories, and natural resources in the Lacandón Jungle. Respect for the word and the life of those who live here.

12. We reject the rights recently approved by the Congress, which puts our lands and our indigenous and campesino territories at risk. No to the sale of land in our communities! We defend our right to live.

13. This Forum appreciates the message sent by the compañeros of the Global Justice Ecology Project of California and Vermont in the United States of America. In the same sense, we are committed to strengthening and linking our struggles in order to achieve climate justice.

14. We offer our solidarity to the Tzeltal educational project of Guaquitepec in the municipality of Chilón, promoted by Patronato Pro educación Mexicano AC. We denounce the government’s contribution to the theft of lands by those who have appropriated the social and educational infrastructure of indigenous education.

15. From Patihuitz Ocosingo, we send our voice in solidarity with the 35 families of the OCEZ-CNPA-MLN in the municipality of Chicomuselo, who suffered the burning of their houses and the theft of their belongings. We demand punishment of those responsible, whoever they may be.

16. We call for the unity of all peoples and indigenous and campesino communities, and for all of our organizations to defend our lands, our territories, and our natural resources. We call for a struggle in defense of life.

Walk without hurry, but with meaning and with conviction.

Porfirio Encino Hernández


Comisión Ejecutiva Nacional


Comisión Ejecutiva Estatal


Coalición de Organizaciones Autónomas de Ocosingo (COAO Ocosingo)

ARIC Independiente y Democrática

    Coordinación Región Avellanal

    Coordinación Región Patihuitz

    Coordinación Región Agua Azul

    Coordinación Región Amador Hernández

ARIC Unión de Uniones

    Coordinación Región Patihuitz

    Coordinación Región Batzil Winiketie

Yachil Atel

Organización Regional de Cafeticultores de Ocosingo (ORCAO)


Unión Democrático del Pueblo (UDP)

Patronato Pro-Educación Mexicana AC

Patihuitz, Ocosingo, Chiapas. April 3, 2011



Durante los días 2 y 3 de abril del 2011, nos reunimos más de 300 delegados/as de organizaciones regionales campesinas e indígenas en el FORO: PERSPECTIVA INDIGENA Y CAMPESINA ANTE LA CRISIS CLIMATICA Y SUS FALSAS SOLUCIONES para dialogar y analizar la situación que vive actualmente nuestros pueblos y comunidades. En el dialogo que hicimos estos días, campeo el recuerdo de nuestro compañero Porfirio Encino, que a 8 años de su partida, su acción y pensamiento vive en nuestros corazones.

Llegamos de distintos puntos del Estado de Chiapas para encontrarnos con nuestros hermanos y hermanas de la selva de Ocosingo y compartimos durante estos dos días la problemática local, estatal y nacional.

Después de discutir concluimos:

1. Los pueblos y comunidades de Chiapas, rechazamos las políticas públicas actuales, que sólo benefician a los grandes capitales nacionales e internacionales. La aplicación de estas políticas públicas, son seguimiento al proyecto neoliberal que rige en la mayor parte del planeta, y está provocando mas pobreza, marginación y exclusión de los campesinos e indígenas de Chiapas, México y el mundo.

2. Los más pobres nos encontramos en una crisis permanente. En el mundo y en nuestro país se escucha hablar de crisis alimentaria, climática, financiera. Pero en nuestros pueblos y comunidades tenemos una crisis permanente que tiene su historia en la conquista y en los gobiernos que sólo sirven para el mayor enriquecimiento de la clase poderosa. El dinero público es utilizado para enriquecer a la clase política y económica del país, y sólo dar migajas al pueblo con programas de combate a la pobreza, que incluso son negocio para funcionarios corruptos y prestadores de servicios. No ayudan a resolver la pobreza.

3. Los pueblos y comunidades campesinas e indígenas, estamos siendo marginadas de nuestra responsabilidad de alimentar a la población. Ahora son las empresas trasnacionales quienes producen, distribuyen y comercializan los alimentos, y quieren también apropiarse de nuestras semillas que hemos trabajado y mejorado durante miles de años. El gobierno prefiere que los extranjeros alimenten a nuestros pueblos, en lugar de diseñar y promover políticas públicas que impulsen la producción, distribución y comercialización de alimentos desde nuestros pueblos y comunidades, que a la vez, sirva para reactivar la economía de la agricultura campesina e indígena.

4. La crisis alimentaria actual, significa también el incremento de precios de los alimentos, que provocará que cada día tendremos menos capacidad económica para su adquisición. En los pueblos campesinos e indígenas será más difícil su acceso, por el bajo ingreso que se tiene y porque la marginación encarece los precios. Por eso, es necesario que produzcamos nuestros propios alimentos y que se reconozca a la pequeña agricultura como la alternativa más viable para la producción de alimentos y el enfriamiento del planeta.

5. Nuestras tierras y territorios están en riesgo. Los programas de conservación de recursos naturales que se implementan actualmente, buscan que todos nuestros recursos naturales sean convertidos en mercancías.

6. En lo inmediato, nos preocupa la desinformación que existe en torno al programa REDD que se implementa en la Selva Lacandona. Consideramos que en el mediano y largo plazo no beneficiara a los pueblos y comunidades que aquí vivimos, sino que serán las grandes empresas trasnacionales las que obtendrán las mayores ganancias por la venta del carbono. Generará la privatización de bosques, la expulsión de comunidades y la especulación financiera. Los mercados de carbono, es una de las falsas soluciones que impulsan las empresas trasnacionales y los gobiernos para combatir el calentamiento global.

7. En Chiapas, ya inició la operación de REDD que es seguimiento al despojo que se hace a los pueblos y comunidades. Tres hechos lo confirman: 1) el convenio firmado con el gobierno de California de los Estados Unidos de América (que es el estado más contaminante del mundo) y el gobierno de Chiapas para la compra-venta de bonos de carbono; 2) la emisión del decreto de la Ley para la Adaptación y Mitigación ante el Cambio Climático en el Estado de Chiapas, el pasado 7 de diciembre de 2010, y 3) la firma del Pacto por el Respeto y Conservación de la Selva Lacandona en diciembre de 2010; para dar apoyo económico a comuneros de la comunidad Lacandona para preservar la selva y la posterior venta de bonos de carbono al gobierno de California.

8. El calentamiento global no se solucionará con la privatización de los recursos naturales. Sus causas principales son los actuales modelos de producción, transformación, distribución, consumo y comercio, que están basados en la concentración de capital (más riqueza para algunos); el alto consumo de combustibles fósiles (petróleo); la sobreproducción y el libre comercio. Todas estas son características del capital trasnacional, que está buscando imponer su expansión y dominio en todo el planeta.

En estos momentos, en que los pueblos y comunidades y en especial la Selva Lacandona son objeto de múltiples presiones de desalojo, de procesos agrarios inconclusos, de pobreza extrema de sus pobladores; de una enorme disputa de los recursos naturales, las organizaciones campesinas e indígenas, manifestamos:

1. Apropiarnos de la información necesaria para determinar qué hacer ante el calentamiento global. El gobierno Federal y Estatal prioriza su atención a las propuestas que hacen las empresas trasnacionales y gobiernos internacionales, en lugar de escuchar la voz de los pueblos y comunidades campesinas e indígenas.

2. El programa REDD no es solución al calentamiento global. Su fin es la privatización del carbono, las tierras, el aire, las semillas, el agua y otros recursos. Su objetivo final es que los países industrializados “compren” su derecho a contaminar, a costa de las tierras y territorios y recursos naturales de los pueblos indígenas y campesinos.

3. Demandamos que los programas de conservación sean sustentados en la visión y práctica campesina e indígena. Estamos convencidos/as que las agricultura campesina y forestería comunitaria pueden enfriar al planeta.

4. La producción de alimentos debe ser una obligación familiar y comunitaria. Las políticas públicas del gobierno estatal y federal, deben orientarse a lograr la soberanía alimentaria de nuestros pueblos. Cerremos las puertas a las trasnacionales.

5. Quienes estamos en el Foro, valoramos la agricultura campesina y sustentable. Por eso insistimos en que es la solución a la crisis de alimentos que padecemos ahora y al calentamiento global.

6. Demandamos que la educación de primaria y secundaria, consideren la educación ecológica en perspectiva del calentamiento global y las soluciones de los pueblos. Pero es importante también que diseñemos e implementemos nuestro programa propio de educación ambiental, de manera autónoma y solidaria con organismos de la sociedad civil, que tengan como principio acompañar las organizaciones. Rechazamos a quienes se montan en nuestro trabajo para después descalificarnos.

7. Los pueblos y comunidades tomaremos en nuestras manos la conservación de los recursos naturales. Estaremos fomentando nuevas formas de organización para la acción y protesta que haga escuchar nuestras iniciativas y propuestas.

8. Iremos a un activismo más constante para abrir la conciencia de nuestros compañeros/as en toda la región. Necesitamos generar más información en las comunidades, ya que la que llega por televisión y prensa es todo pagado por el gobierno y siempre habla a su favor. Y la realidad de lo que dice es otra.

9. Impulsar la defensa de nuestras semillas criollas, para ello será necesario rescatar y socializar nuestra historia agrícola para hacer más eficaz nuestros cultivos. Debemos evitar que las semillas se privatices, como lo quieren hacer empresas como Monsanto.

10. Implementar leyes comunitarias que procuren la conservación de los recursos naturales y el establecimiento de la agroecología como forma de producción de alimentos.

11. Alto al despojo de tierras, territorios, recursos naturales en la Selva Lacandona. Respeto a la palabra y vida de los pobladores.

12. Reprobamos el derecho pleno aprobado por la cámara diputados, que pone en riesgos las tierras y territorios indígenas y campesinos. No a la venta de la tierras en nuestras comunidades. Defendamos nuestro derecho a vivir.

13. El Foro agradece el mensaje enviado por los compañeros del Proyecto de la Justicia Ecológica Global de California y Vermont de los Estados Unidos de América. De igual manera, nos comprometemos a fortalecer y enlazar nuestras luchas para alcanzar la justicia climática.

14. Nos solidarizamos con el proyecto educativo Tzeltal de la región Guaquitepec del municipio de Chilón que impulsa el Patronato Pro educación Mexicano AC. Demandamos la atención gubernamental para coadyuvar al desalojo de los invasores que se han apropiado de la infraestructura social y educativa que tiene como fin la educación indígena.

15. Desde Patihuitz Ocosingo, hacemos llegar nuestra voz solidaria a las 35 familias de la OCEZ-CNPA-MLN en el municipio de Chicomuselo, que les fueron incendiadas sus viviendas y despojados sus bienes. Exigimos castigo a los responsables, los que sean.

16. Convocamos a la unidad de los pueblos y comunidades campesinas e indígenas, y a sus organizaciones para impulsar la defensa por nuestras tierras, territorios y recursos naturales. Convocamos a luchar por la vida.

Caminar sin prisa, sin pausa; pero con sentido y dirección.

Porfirio Encino Hernández


Comisión Ejecutiva Nacional


Comisión Ejecutiva Estatal


Coalición de Organizaciones Autónomas de Ocosingo

COAO Ocosingo

ARIC Independiente y Democrática

    Coordinación Región Avellanal

    Coordinación Región Patihuitz

    Coordinación Región Agua Azul

    Coordinación Región Amador Hernández

ARIC Unión de Uniones

    Coordinación Región Patihuitz

    Coordinación Región Batzil Winiketie

Yachil Atel

Organización Regional de Cafeticultores de Ocosingo (ORCAO)


Unión Democrático del Pueblo (UDP)

Patronato Pro-Educación Mexicana AC

Patihuitz Ocosingo, Chiapas. 3 de abril de 2011

Leave a Reply

  1. Here’s a link to an excellent (but depressing) article by Jeff Conant about this REDD-type project in Chiapas:

    A Broken Bridge to the Jungle: The California-Chiapas Climate Agreement Opens Old Wounds | Climate Connections

  2. It’s unbelievable that the big corporations and the government can still get away with this sort of treatment of indigenous people.

  3. ESP-¿Qué pasa con la iniciativa de Chiapas y California, que estableció un grupo de trabajo ad-hoc ( encargado de elegir las reglas para el comercio de créditos de carbono entre los dos estados? Cómo saber si el conjunto de normas será conveniente no sólo para las empresas estadounidenses, sino también para las comunidades locales de Chiapas?

    ENG-What about the Chiapas and California’s MoU, which established an ad hoc working group ( to set the rules for carbon trading btw the two states? How to tell if the set of standards will be adequate not only for American companies, who may offsets their emissions, but also for local communities in Chiapas?

  4. In the Indigenous wisdom and in the jungle lie the only hope for a sustainable future. Under the pretense of authentic conservation, REDD is yet another capitalistic scheme that will ultimately destroy both of the sources for our survival.
    Four Arrows, aka Don Trent Jacobs, Ph.D., Ed.D.

  5. REDD and REDD+ is a proposed joint venture between the UNFCCC, World Bank, Legal and Illegal Logging Companies, plantation growers, and Governments of Forests Countries who use land tenure of forest areas,as a stipulation and (result) to receive donations from supposed donor countries.